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Cosmology - astronomy
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CyberTaRo - astronomy GLOSSARY A to K
CyberTaRo - astronomy GLOSSARY L to Z
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Glossary L- K
Light beam 
We are on earth at the point 1 (see drawing below). The suns is at the point 2 and covers the point 4, however not the point 3. A star is situated at the point 3 or 4. In the environment of massiv heavenly bodies, the space is curved by the gravitation (attraction). This also applies to light beams. Light beams are transmitted from the star at point 3 and 4. The star is seen while observing from the earth, however we mean ther star to be located at point 3. But within the area 2, the beams turns to change its direction and the star is actually located at point 4. All this is due to the curvature of the space. 

  see also How does one see an object?

Lightning flash of bright light produced from cloud by natural electricity. According to the dictionary this is accompanied by natural spark discharge between differently loaded clouds. These clouds consist of water drops and/or ice drops or water vapour.
The causes of lightnings are here further available.
--> antimatter  --> lightning emergence


Literature see http://www.enzyklop.info/Lit/litLinkNF.html
Macroscopically  is a body, whose mass correspond to the typical expansions in our everyday life world. The measuring range starts with approximately 0.01 millimeters. When small dimensions are available, then it is microscopically - thus it is only for magnifying device suitable.
Mass  is a basic characteristic of matter (It's a weight of the total amount of material in an object). Each body opposes the mass inertia (resistance) to a modification of the rate, whose cause is its mass. The presence of the mass is the cause of the attraction, at which the bodies exercise one on the other - the gravitation. That applies also to the planets of the universe. The acceleration of free falling body and the gravitation constant of the material of the bodies are in this case independent. Therefore the relation of carrier mass to heavy mass is constant. One can equate thus both each other. This equivalence (equivalence) forms one of the bases of general relativity theory. Particles with proper mass cannot be accelerated at speedlight, since their mass would become infinitely large. 
matter is all material in the universe.  Matter is not the same as mass.  In the classical physics, the matter was treated in such a way, as if it fulfills continuously and evenly the steady space areas. Only atomic physics showed then that this is only a rough approximation to the reality. The spatial principal part of the atom is materially empty and is only fulfilled from intensive force effect. 
See also: Darkmatter and antimatter
Miracle  In order to be considered as miracles, it must concern a unique exception appearance. If it occurs two or three times, then it applies no longer to miracles.
The miracle is a process, which contradicts the laws of nature and the experience. 
Within the religious area they are considered as proofs of God. 
Paradoxon  is a self-contradictor proposition, which is on a contradiction of the connected terms based as following, e.g. : half is more than a whole. 
      With a possible time journey would be the paradoxon, if the son travels in the past, and murders his grandfather at the birth . Then his father could then not be born to give him birth. But if he was not born, how could he then travel into the past. That is the unique proof that such types of time journeys are impossible. An intervention or a modification of the past appears to be completely unreal. We can assume that the "time traveller"  wants in no case to murder his ancestors , but this can also take place accidentally. A modification of the past must be completely impossible during time journeys. In order to prevent a paradoxon, a clever "time traveler" would mean that he would not travel to places, at which he would possibly meet one of his ancestors. Nature does not get involved in such eventualities - SEE time journeys . Any modifications can develop to devastating effects - according to our opinion even smallest or with no meaning . 

Only due to the proximity are planets well visible. Actually so far we are only able to observe directly planets found in our own solar system. Through
this the planets differs in two groups: the internal (rock -) planets merkur, Venus, earth and Mars (from inside to outside), and beyond the Mars course orbiting the gas planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptun around the sun. The outermost is Pluto, the wanderer probably caught by the sun gravitation. It probably did not develop together with the solar system. 

are wanderer in space, with glowing tails which appear at a certain time intervals in the proximity of the earth. Comets on Ellipse courses belong to the solar system and cannot depart from it. 


are small planets, which move on circular or elliptical courses between the large planets.The contents are of low-mass, solid objects that orbit the sun and shine by reflected light. The largest achieve some hundred kilometers of diameters, the bulk however are only some kilometers up to some hundred meters large. The largest Asteroid is Ceres with almost 1000 km diameter. Because of their small mass they are not spherical, but have very irregular forms. Most of the Asteroids are found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, however there are also some other well-known representatives within other areas. Some of them can even reach the earth very closely. 

is a further term for small planets or Asteroid. 
   See also planet systems      see also comets

are dying stars, which blew their covering off,  in other words, luminous shell of gas are ejected from an old, low-mass star. The exposed core disintegrates to a white dwarf with surface temperatures of up to 100000 degrees Celsius
Planetarium  A system in a space with halfspherical cover, --> astronomical operational sequences are radiated by means of projection to the half sphere. 
Polar light  is an atmospheric appearance, which results from interaction of fast electrically charged particles with air molecules. The electrically charged particles are above all electrons and protons from the solar wind. 
Pulsar  a technical term for Pulsating star. Pulsar are rapid rotating neutron stars,  that emit the synchrotron radiation. If the earth is situated in one of the two jet cones, then the neutron star is visible as Pulsar. 
Some pulsear are visible in the optical, but most of them are found however in the radio area. Some of them even radiate within  the x-ray area (x-ray pulsars). 
    Quantum theory 
To the assertion of radiation processes, which gave the physics a new basis. The changes in status of the atom are not constant, but rapidly - in quanta - thus in quantities 
Redshift are displacement of the spectral lines in light coming from the stars of distant galaxies. If a source of light departs from the observer, then the wavelength of the light increases, i.e., it results to a red shift (English: REDSHIFT) (Doppler effect). Approaching has blue shift. The radiation from far away objects always possesses a red shift.  To the comparison it is aforementioned that also by driving past the police cars  with sirene, the audible changes itself. The audible tone of the approaching car is high. After the car has driven away from us at a distant, the noise becomed more deeper. The frequency becomes brighter or higher. Additionally it is referred to the fact that the red shift can be caused also by another effect: The light on the way to the earth penetrates gas and dust in the interstellar space - this also leads to redlight (red shift). 

Galaxy spectra are mostly red [ REDSHIFTS ] in relation to the laboratory lines. Close galaxies can be also blue - due to their independent movement on the Milky Way. However it was already found in the 20th years of the twentieth Century that galaxies  tendentiously are more strongly red-shifted, once they are further distant. E. Hubble measured the spectra of many galaxies and derived the law designated after it. 

Register  here is a book with alphabetically head words, listed with the page specification .

  Albert Einstein

Relatively - depending upon point of view which can be differently - relative, --> relativity theory - is the justified physical theory, according to the space, time and mass to the movement status of the observer which are dependent,  thus it is of relative value. 

An important consequence from the finiteness of the speed light (C = 299792,458 km/s) in the astronomy is the relation of age and distance of astronomical objects: The further an object is far from us, the older it is, since the light radiated from this object needs  longer to reach us. 

[ space time continuum ] In the special relativity theory, space and time are combined into a four-dimensional size of space-time. In space-time continuum is one point represented as world point   with three space and the coordinated time. 

Space-time = -  unique description of events by specification of 3 space and a time coordinate. In general relativity theory, the force of gravity is described as curvature of space-time. gravitation
See general space-time curvature and see space-time curvature entire

The curvature or distortion of the space. 
See dimension . gravitation
Gauss, Bolyai, Lobatschwsky, Riemann and other developed the idea of the curved space. 

Space-time -  unique description of  events by specification of 3 space and a time coordinate.  In general relativity theory, the force of gravity is described as curvature of space-time. 



is one point in the space-time, at which the spacetime curvature is infinite. The naked singularity is a space-time singularity. It occurs with the Big Bang and the time and the space stops to exist.

The naked singularity is unlike to the singularity, a space-time singularity, which is not surrounded by a black hole. It is an area in space-time, at which the space-time curvature is almost infinite. The black hole is evaporated or moved over through the Hypetunnel into an another universe. We cannot observe the environment of the hole. It is marked off by the event horizon and is subjected in the contrary to the well-known laws of nature. A naked singularity would hurt this boundary and therefore is not admissible according to the cosmic censorship (Penrose). No time and no space exist in the naked singularity. 
In the general explanation a singularity is seen as a special feature. 
Single (english) is in the linguistic usage a single sole resident. In the grammar it is the singular. 

STAR see sun and solar system
The solar system probably developped from  rotating gas clouds, which formed a disk, and in which the planets and various smaller objects were able to form. 

Stars (or suns) develop from collapsing molecule clouds. The heavy gas can cool efficiently by electromagnetic radiation, whereby the thermal pressure is reduced and further material can flow, whereby also the density increases and so that the cooling of the radiation is intensified. In the center of the configuration, a spherical object is formed, in which planets can form. 

Stars like the sun are at the end after the consumption of the energy and become white dwarves after repelling the expanded covering (in many billions years). Other massive stars with more than 3 - 5 solar masses can still pass through further fusion cycles in the core. Afterwards they find their end in form of a supernova  explosion. A neutron star or a black hole is all what remains. 

String theory  The stringer theory is a physical theory for the description of nature with very small distances (approx. 10-35 my). Instead of punctiform elementary particles one treats one dimentional expanded objects --> stringers. Punctiform elementary particles are not used anymore as basis of one dimentional expanded objects --> stringers. With the stringer theory many connections to many parts of physics and mathematics can be established (physics particles and relativistic quantum field theory). The stringer theory reduces to a quantum field theory when the distances are larger than 10-35m. The symmetry is also very important for  physics particles. The connection to the gravitation enables also the investigation of the status to 8 - 50 seconds after the Big Bang, in which the quantum gravitation effects cannot be neglected. The Mirror symmetry in the module space of the Calabi Yau of space (much-dimensional space) led too much interesting developments of geometry. 
Sun  is nothing else as a star which is the same in the language of the astronomy. Our sun (about 5 billion years old), is seen as the nearest star from the earth. 
Solar mass unit: Our sun forms the determining unit of the solar mass: 
It's weight is 2 times 10 to the power of 27 tons 
The others in our solar system are (move -) planets. The middle distance to the sun amounts to 149,598 million km. The light need thus about 8 minutes from the sun surface to the earth. 
Red giant is an age star, which has used its hydrogen supply in the center.
Solar fog is a cloud from interstellar gas and dust, from which the solar system developped approximately 5 billion years ago . 

Solar system emergence 
A system consisting of the sun with the nine planets (from the inside to the outside Merkur, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptun and 
Pluto), their moons, Asteroids, comets and interplanetary medium, which are gravitatively bounded as main bodies to the sun. The sun has 99,9% of the mass of the entire system. 
More info. over the emergence of the solar system: 


Solar system

Picture of sun and the planets





The end of a star life in form of an explosion, at which very large energy quantities are set free. After the silicon is burnt in the core, the energy source of the star extinct, since the iron can no more be fused with the gain of energy. The star loses its equilibrium and the core of the star collapses in itself. In the interior, there only remains either a neutron star or a black hole. One can observe the neutron star in some cases as Pulsar. 
Temperature    --> absolute temperature 
Theory  is a theory, which lead to standard explanations and derivations, however proofs are not available at all. The opposite of the theory is the experience.
Thesis   is a scientific statement, which is still to be proven. 
The study of the objective time is closely connected with the development of the astronomy and theoretical physics. Since Einstein (1905 relativity theory) an absolute time does not exist any more.  twin paradoxon

The personal interpretation of the time looks different: 
Fulfilled times appear longer than boring ones. In the memory the relation turns back. Animals probably possess no sense of time. Human children starts to internalize at the age of 7.
[ time ] physical dimension, the events at a place subjected to one of the sequence.  Space-time -  unique description of events by specification of 3 space and a time coordinate.  In general relativity theory the force of gravity is described as curvature of space-time. 

Space-time -  unique description of  events by specification of 3 space and a time coordinate.  In general relativity theory the force of gravity is described as curvature of space-time. 

Universe  Universe or space is totality of all stars, planet - systems, galaxies and nebulas in the outer space. The diameter is indicated at present as 14.5 billion of light-years. The expansion of the universe has a rate of approximately 50 to 100 km/hour. The part of the universe which is accessible to us( see telescope area ) is limited, i.e. by the finite speed of light and the expansion of the space: far distant regions move faster away due to the apparent growing flight velocity. It is estimated that there are 10 billion galaxies in the observable universe. 

Hereby it is pointed out to the many world theory of Andrej Linde (Moscow). He means in here, pricipally, the Big Bang often occurs and at different places. Our universe is one of many. 

Universe  Cosmos --> or universe
unstably  If e.g. the orbit of the earth becomes unstable around the sun, the earth leaves the course and falls into the sun 
Urimplosion  After the expansion of the universe is terminated, the universe pulls itself together again. 
Other designations are:  Recollapse - final bang -  - large final collapse - pulls itself together = contraction 
Urimplosions  singularity  After the expansion of the universe is terminated, the universe pulls itself together again. After this process is terminated, the universe thus implodes (contracted - compressed itself in a small area), the strongly compressed volume of the matter which remained, changed over now into a singularity .. There is one point in space-time, at which the space-time curvature becomes almost infinite. It occurs with the Big Bang and the time and the space stops to exist. Likewise it also occurs after the contraction (implosion) with the final bang. 
The white hole brings the compressed subject in the universe and is the opposite of the black hole
Wormhole  See Hypetunnel - hyper+dimensional tunnel
Wonder ? Wonder? 
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